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December 04 2015


The Home Inspection for Foster Care

When you decide to do foster care you lose a little of your privacy. Not only to the children who may be placed in your home, but to the Childrens Division (CD) employees. One of the requirements when starting this process is the staff from CD must come into your home and make sure your home is safe for them to place a child in there. There are certain requirements that you must do in order to have your apartment, condominium, or house approved.

This article will tell of some of the more basic requirements in the state of Missouri that you must have to get your home approved. I will also tell what it was like to have a person come into my home and tell us what we must do. I will also be transparent enough to even tell you what changes we had to make and did make before and after the home inspection visit.

My mother had been a kinship foster parent so I knew some of the requirements. I knew we must have a fire extinguisher. I knew we must have a fire or disaster plan drawn to label an escape route and placed in a visible area. I knew we must have a list of emergency contact numbers, such as the police, fire, school, doctor, ambulance and Childrens Division, placed were all could read.

I had to buy a new smoke detector for one of the bedrooms upstairs.

It was the bedroom where the potential foster children would be sleeping. All the other rooms had working smoke detectors and I checked them prior to the home inspection visit. We do not have a gas heater, but if you do use gas in your home, you will also be required to purchase a carbon monoxide detector.

Prior to the home inspection visit we went out and bought a set of bunk beds. If the child is over six they cannot sleep in the same room as a child of the opposite sex. We have the bunk beds if we get two boys. We have a bed in our daughters room if we get a girl. If a child is under the age of 2 they can sleep in the foster parents room. However, we have made a decision at this time we will only be taking school age children up to the age of 12. We eventually will open up to younger children, but not right at this time. The room set up with the bunk beds will also have two dresser drawers in there. Each child must have an area where they can store their clothes and personal belongings. This included closet and drawer space.

The home inspection visit is pretty routine. Your house cannot have visible dirt, messes, unsafe clutter, and must be free from vermin and rodent infestations. You cannot have animal feces lying around. In essence, you must have a home that is relatively clean with enough space for adequate play and living space for your family and the children who will be coming into your home. There must also be adequate play space outside for the children to play. If you are too close to a busy road or unsafe conditions you must have a fenced in play area.

I have two guns in my house and must purchase locks for the triggers or a locked safe for the guns. Ammunition and guns must be stored in separate areas to make access to them harder for the child to potentially get.

I also had to purchase screens for the upstairs windows. I had these before, but the framed screens had been knocked out and destroyed by the elements, animals, or play by children in the past and I just did not replace them. All windows above the main story of the house must be covered with screens.

If we do take younger children, I understand we will have to place little safety locks on the cabinets and will also have to buy those little plastic things to stick in the electrical outlets. These cost very little and can be installed by even the least mechanically inclined person, like me.

Overall, the home inspection study was not that bad. The following is a list of items and the cost of each that we had to purchase or complete:

Fire Extinguisher-purchased at Wal-Mart for less than $20. One smoke detector-purchased at Wal-Mart for about $12. 4 framed screenscustom designed purchased at local shop for less than $100. One evacuation plan-hand made and laminated with my laminator was free. One emergency number page-hand made and laminated with my laminator for free. Two trigger locks for guns-purchased at Wal-Mart, two for $21.99. Set of bunk beds-purchased at Wal-Mart for $150. Two mattresses for the bunk beds-purchased at local store for $100 each. Two dresser drawers-given to me by my sister, but generally could purchase for $50 each. My wife getting me to clean the house before the home inspection-priceless. We did do some cleaning because we wanted to present our home in a good light. It was not that bad but some anxiety did set in.

We had some anxiety prior to the home visit. I knew some things needed to be done, but the CD employee was very friendly and did not seem to be judgmental about our home. There were some things that we needed to do and I listed them above, but over all our home was suitable.

I feel we can provide not only a safe home, but a loving home as well. There will be two more home visits prior to placement of any children in our home. This will focus more on our skills as parents but there will also be a walk-through of the home to make sure it is well-kempt.

Please feel free to leave a comment or ask a question about this process. I will answer from my experience or will find the answer from those who know. I hope this article will encourage you to think about opening your home and family up to this process. Make today and everyday a great day.

October 19 2015


Manatt Adds Litigator Mathew Rosengart in New York

NEW YORK--(BUSINESS WIRE)--Manatt, Phelps & Phillips, LLP, money for lawsuits national law and consulting firm, announced today that Mathew Rosengart has joined the firm as a partner in the Litigation Division and member of the firms Trial Practice Group. Rosengart comes to civil litigation attorneys firm from Liner, Yankelevitz, Sunshine & Regenstreif, LLP, where he was a partner. He is based in Manatts New York office.

Rosengarts practice focuses on complex commercial litigation, entertainment litigation and white collar criminal defense. He has successfully represented global financial institutions in securities fraud trials, conducted complex internal investigations on behalf of Fortune 500 companies, and represented members of senior management in Federal Bureau of Investigation and Securities and Exchange Commission investigations.

Rosengart recently secured the complete dismissal of judge or jury trial multi-million dollar securities case against a major bank and the dismissals of cases brought against an Academy-Award nominated director/producer and response to summons and complaint internationally-renowned photographer.

Prior to entering private practice, Rosengart served with the United States Department of Justice for eight years. As a federal prosecutor, he was lead or co-counsel in several cases of national and international significance, including the prosecution and conviction of a U.S. cabinet officer. Before being appointed an assistant U.S. attorney, Rosengart served as a trial attorney in the Justice Department's Civil Division, where he represented the government in all aspects of complex civil litigation.

Mathews trial experience, both as defense counsel and as a prosecutor, is extremely impressive, said Chad Hummel, chair of Manatts Litigation Division. He will add immediate depth to our national litigation capability and enhance our reputation as a go-to firm on both coasts. Mathew is an exceptional lawyer and we are thrilled to have him on our team.

Manatts first-rate litigation and trial practice, its wealth of highly-regarded and talented lawyers, and its values and professionalism, made the firm particularly attractive to me, said Rosengart. The firm's broad and diverse practice on both the East and West coasts make Manatt an ideal fit, and I look forward to joining my new colleagues."

William T. Quicksilver, Manatts chief executive and managing partner, noted that Rosengarts addition presents an opportunity to further enhance our strong national litigation practice. We are pleased to welcome him to the firm.

A former law clerk to Justice David Souter on the Supreme Court of New Hampshire, Rosengart is a past recipient of the Federal Bar Association's prestigious Younger Lawyer Award. Colorado’s award-winning auto accident and personal injury law firm, providing the highest caliber representation with a proven track record of getting results. Our leading Denver personal injury attorneys will move mountains to get you the results you deserve. We are dedicated to our clients and have helped thousands of people throughout Colorado, recovering millions of dollars, and always offering 100% free consultations. Call us today to find out how we can help!He has also served as an Adjunct Professor of Law at Fordham Law School and Pepperdine University School of Law.

Rosengart earned his J.D., cum laude, from Boston College Law School, and his B.A. from Tulane University.

About Manatt, Phelps & Phillips, LLP

Manatt, Phelps & Phillips, LLP, provides legal and consulting services to a global client base from offices in Los Angeles, Orange County, Palo Alto, San Francisco, judgment enforcement Sacramento, California; New York City and Albany, New York; and Washington, D.C. Manatt includes Manatt Health Solutions, a healthcare policy and strategic business advisory group, and ManattJones Global Strategies, LLC, a wholly owned subsidiary that develops and implements strategies to expand client businesses and facilitate their effective competition in global markets. For information, visit www.manatt.com, www.manatthealthsolutions.com, and www.manattjones.com.


August 05 2015

Discussion about how is the grand jury selected http://goo.gl/bbB4j8 #CommunityServiceLaw

July 22 2015


Car Accessories Make Your Car Unique and Stylish by Thomas Jens

Car accessories are nothing but additions to the car, which make the car unique and stylish. Besides, making your car stylish, these accessories are also very useful and function very well. Talking about the basic car accessories then it includes seat covers, steering cover, floor mats, mirrors, etc. All these car accessories make your car unique among your friends and will be able to make an impression while you are driving with your friends. Car accessories also make your car a center of attention. You can find a wide range of car accessories in the market. You can easily buy these accessories from the market at the reasonable prices in order to add unique appeal to your car.

Normally, you can DUI Records two categories of car accessories, Interior Car Accessories and Exterior Car Accessories. The Interior Car Accessories include floor mats, seat covers, music system, LCD screen, air bags etc. As far as exterior car accessories are concerned they include side mirrors, license plate, number plate, wheel covers, car http://www.expertlaw.com/forums/showthread.php?t=155528 cover etc. Both interior and exterior car accessories make your car unique. Even all these car accessories are made up for giving astonishing look to your car and you can also use these accessories from protection point of view.

There are also some car accessories for safety. These include pet carrier, cargo liners etc. Keeping a tool kit with you will help you in the long drive. Especially, roadside tools such as jumper, loose tools etc play an important role when your car gets breakdowns in the long drive. Apart from this the luggage carrier is also a very useful when you have planned a long trip.

If you are a youngster and great music lover then one accessory which impress you a lot is the stylish and classy stereo system. This system will make your journey Don't Drive Drunk enjoying and help you in making a good impression among your friends. Floor carpets and mats help to protect the base of your car and also from the dust and dirt. The same thing is also done DUI Policy the seat covers that save your seat from dust and dirt.

It does not matter what accessories you select for your car but one thing you should keep in your mind is that you must be conscious about the quality and its requirement. Learn what to do during a Truck Accident situation. In case you're looking for some information on Construction Accident Lawyers visit www.TruckAccidentGuide.net now!It will help you to avoid unnecessary spending on useless accessories. Therefore, it is advisable to first make out a list of accessories and then start buying them as per their importance to you.



2 of 5 students plead guilty to sexual battery in central Florida gang-rape case

WINTER SPRINGS, Fla. -  Another high school football player charged with participating in the gang rape of a fellow student near their central Florida high school has pleaded guilty to sexual battery.

The Orlando Sentinel (http://bit.ly/1GkM0Vc) reports that Judge Donald Marblestone on Tuesday sent call now href="http://whatdoesapersonalinjurylawyerdo.unblog.fr/2015/07/21/famous-people-from-nevada/">set appointment now 17-year-old Winter Springs High School student to http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_Constitution a long-term juvenile facility. Looking for information about truck accident attorney? these truck accident attorney reviews will give you some good insights.On Monday, a 16-year-old suspect received probation for his guilty plea.

Another 17-year-old on Tuesday turned down a plea offer from prosecutors that involved incarceration set appointment now a juvenile facility. Assistant State Attorney Laura Bosco said that her office would now prosecute him as an adult, meaning he could face up to 30 years in state prison.

Five football players were charged with rape after a 16-year-old student said she was attacked in a patch of woods near the school in November.


Information from: Orlando Sentinel, http://www.orlandosentinel.com/



Houston Lawyer, Jack Carroll, discusses facts about DWI

Houston Lawyer, Jack Carroll, discusses facts about DWI

 by: Jack Carroll

You thought it could never happen to you, but suddenly you find yourself in a situation that you did not expect. What do you do? Contact Texas drunk driving defense lawyers Jack Carroll or Don Becker to protect your rights! The Texas Department of Motor Vehicles can suspend your license if you refuse to take a breath test, blood test, or urine test. WARNING! You have a limited amount of time (15 days) in which to appeal this administrative license suspension.

When you have been investigate or arrested for any criminal offense such as Driving While Intoxicated (DWI), or any Felony Charge, you have an absolute right to be concerned. Facing criminal charges may be one of the most frightening things you have encountered. Some of https://www.gov.uk/speeding-penalties the possible consequences that can result from a Driving While Intoxicated (DWI) conviction include the restriction or loss of a drivers license, an increase in insurance cost, fines, court costs, and even the possibility of jail. As you can see, Driving While Intoxicated (DWI) can be a very serious charge.

The Texas law says that the District Attorney need only to prove that after drinking you were not able to drive your car in a normal capacity. That sounds pretty cut and dry, but it is not quite as simple as that.

You see, if challenged, the District Attorney must also show all of the following:

That the arresting officer made the arrest properly,

That you were properly advised of your rights,

That the equipment the officer used to test you was working, accurately,


Also, the office that administered the standard field sobriety tests should have successfully completed the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Standardized Field Sobriety Testing studenfst class before administering these tests. We have handled hundreds of (DWI) cases and know every trick and nuance officers use to cause you to fail. Before and at trial we will grade the officers to ensure that he or she conducted the tests properly. If the tests were not conducted properly, this can be disclosed to the District Attorney or the jury to show that the tests results were unreliable and should not be believed.

When you retain Jack or Don, not some underling, we will insist that the District Attorney provide us with the names and address of anyone he plans to call as a witness as well as copies of every written or recorded statements of their testimony. This will allow us to prepare our questions we ask them.

We will insist on receiving copies of any videos that show your sobriety tests, whether in the field or at the station.

We will insist on receiving copies of records showing that the equipment used for test was functioning properly and that the person giving the test was properly certified/

As you can see, what looks simple gets pretty complex. As your criminal defense attorney we will insist that all this information be provided and we will walk through all this information as we discuss and proceed on your case.

DRIVER LICENSE SUSPENSION Your arrest may have included a cancellation of your Texas driving privileges for a specific period of time. YOU HAVE ONLY 15 DAYS FROM THE DATE OF YOUR ARREST TO REQUEST A HEARING ON THIS MATTER. We believe that this hearing is extremely important, not only to challenge your suspension but also as an opportunity for your attorney to question the arresting officer to find out exactly what he is going to say in court. If you retain our firm to represent you, part of that representation includes representing you at the driver license suspension. Learn what to do during a Truck Accident situation. In case you're looking for some information on Chicago Car Accident Lawyer visit www.TruckAccidentGuide.net now!However, remember you must request this hearing no later than 15 days from your arrest so it is important that you contact us as soon as possible to schedule an appointment. If your Texas driving privileges are ultimately suspended, in most cases we can get you an Occupational License that will allow you to drive to and from work.

WARNING TEXAS DRIVER LICENSE SURCHARGE! Beginning with any Texas DWI Conviction for an offense committed on or after 09/01/03, the Texas Department If Public Safety is authorized to charge a surcharge on your Drivers License. This charge will range from $1,000.00 to $2000.000 a year for three years. Depending on whether you provided a breath sample, and the results were positive for intoxication, you could be facing a $6,000.00 fee to keep your license.

The government with all of its resources can frequently make your life miserable; regardless of whether you have actually committed the crime. Real life criminal law is NOT like television. Cases are not resolved in one hour, and the solutions are normally not simple. Hiring a criminal defense attorney can be Bac To Drive most important decision you make.

About The Author

Jack Carroll

Carroll and Becker





Not certified by the Texas Board of Legal Specialization.

This article is designed for general information only. This information is not intended to be legal advice. Consult an attorney for before making any Urine In Blood decisions based on your individual circumstances.

This article was posted on September 16, 2005


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July 21 2015


10 Tips for Raising Teenage Girls

Communicate With Teenage Daughtershttp://www.isp.state.il.us/traffic/speedlimitenf.cfm With Teenage Daughters" data-credit="Debbie Roome" data-credit-link="" data-height="675" data-type="" data-width="720" src="https://static.suite.io/article_images/large/4c9fb47b-bc62-40c1-8030-233c4ede4093.jpg"/>Teenage girls have different issues to teenage boys and parents need to handle them differently. In their book, Why Girls Talk (McGraw-Hill, 2005), Susan Morris Shaffer and Linda Perlman Gordon highlight the fact that while teenage girls vary greatly in size, appearance, gifting and personality, there are some general principles that will be helpful to most parents.10 Ideas for Improving Relationships With Teenage Daughters

While it may not be possible to implement all of these ideas, using one or two of them can help develop a deeper relationship with an adolescent daughter:

Help teenage daughters to reach their full potential. This can be done by encouraging interests and providing opportunities and training in those areas. Teach them independence and allow them to make decisions and learn from mistakes.Put yourself in your daughter's position when trying to understand what seems to be an unreasonable request. Find out what motivated her to ask for such a thing.Allow teenage girls to express themselves within reason and don't take everything personally. Learn what to do during a Truck Accident situation. In case you're looking for some information on Auto Accident Attorneys visit www.TruckAccidentGuide.net now!It is not good to repress emotion and Drinking Driving occasionally overstepping boundaries, girls will get a feel for what is appropriate.Set and maintain boundaries in connection with activities such as drinking, driving, drugs, sex, curfews and computer use. Set clear consequences for breaking the rules and carry these through.Listen to complaints and woes but don't try and fix everything. It is Blood Alcohol Level Legal helpful to listen in an understanding manner to allow your daughter to come to her own conclusions.Engage teen daughters in discussions about pop culture and advertising. Ask their opinion on the latest trends and whether she thinks they are healthy.Don't be afraid to discuss sexuality with teenage girls. If you don't talk about it, she will gather information from Driving Impairment Internet and uneducated peers, which may lead to bad choices.Stay involved with your daughter's education, no matter what her level of ability, and guide her into wise subject choices according to her gifts.Encourage daughters to set goals in life and as far as possible, model the balance between family and work.Aim at building and maintaining strong family relationships, especially between daughters and dads. While teen girls may rebel against Dui First Offense, a close-knit family is a strong support structure in times of need.Parenting Teen Girls is Hard but Can be Fun

Raising teenage daughters can be difficult but it can also be great fun. The important thing is to set boundaries, keep communication flowing and be prepared to listen, any time of day or night.



Texting While Driving Is as Worse as Drinking and Driving

Resist the urge to text when you're behind the wheel

Texting impairs the reaction time of drivers - that's serious. Remember that you're not the only on the road. Learn what to do during a Truck Accident situation. In case you're looking for some information on Find Personal Injury Lawyer visit www.TruckAccidentGuide.net now!There are pedestrians, other motorists and from time to time you may encounter livestock crossing (yes in some countries this is happens a lot). Anytime you fail to focus on the road and on driving, you increase your risk for accidents. So what do you do?

Switch off your phone when driving

Have someone else read and reply text messages for you

Put your phone in an inaccessible place so you don't get tempted to reach for it (nope, the glove compartment is not a good place)

Get Blood Alcohol Level Limit text to speech software application for your phone. Do get the voice activated http://missouri.drivinguniversity.com/speeding-tickets/speeding-ticket-fines/ ones to prevent you from fumbling with your phone while driving.

What to do

Currently, 35 out of 50 states in the US have banned texting while driving. But Testing Alcohol Content is just one measure to reduce the incidences of accidents and near misses. If you are a parent, here are some reminders and suggestions for you to consider:

Install software apps for the phone that disable text messaging or even switching the phone off while driving. There are Alcohol Level Driving apps for these. In fact some even have notifications when your teen tries to uninstall or disable this application.

Constant reminders may easily turn into nagging, but hey, it is better that they know

Don't call or text your child to make sure they are not texting while driving if you know they are behind the wheel. That's just counter-productive.

Be an example. 48% of teen drivers have seen their parents use the phone while driving.

Technology is here to make our lives easier and more convenient. But this does not mean we can be careless with how we use these gadgets and devices. Driving requires attention and focus. Although many drivers have made this skill second nature, it is by no means a reason to be overconfident. Putting safety first is always a prudent action.



Dui Drivers License Restoration In Michigan

Dui Drivers License Restoration In Michigan

For DUI drivers, license restoration in Michigan is not impossible. To restore your drivers license in Michigan, you will need to prove with clear and convincing evidence that you have controlled your alcohol abuse and that you will never drink and drive again. Reinstating drivers license in Michigan after DUI will require you to seek a hearing at the Driver Assessment and Appeal Division (DAAD). Usually you are only allowed one hearing per year.

Proving That You No Longer Abuse Alcohol


restoration in Michigan will require you to undergo a substance abuse

evaluation. You should be fully open to your therapist and evaluator so

that he/she can demonstrate complete information about your alcohol

abuse history as well as how long you have stayed sobre. It is

important that you show at least 12 months of not touching any alcohol.

Any signs of alcohol and drug abuse will ruin your efforts and set you

back another year. Let your evaluator know about http://www.datehookup.com/Thread-911424.htm your intention of

restoration of your drivers license and that you will need him/her to

state that you are at low risk of DUI if you get your drivers license

restored. The DAAD of the State of Michigan will only accept the report

if such a risk assessment is stated clearly.

Testimony From Family, Friends and Support Group

Other than the substance abuse evaluation report, you should prepare a few testimony letters from family and friends. Ideally these letters should be written by people who not only know about your DUI and alcohol abuse history, they should also state how long they have seen you stayed away from alcohol. learn what to do during a Truck Accident situation. In case you're looking for some information on How To Be An Attorney visit www.TruckAccidentGuide.net now!The hearing for your license restoration in Michigan will also be Felony Dui successfully, if you produced evidence of your participation in a support group Blood Testing For Alcohol-ohios-missing-173-sex-offenders-lima-missing-people">Drinking And Driving Statistics 2015 Alcoholics Anonymous (AA). You should get the attendance sheet as well as signatures from members of your groups to support your DAAD hearing.



Drunk Driving Statistics

Quick Fact!Motorcycle riders are known to be involved in most number of drunk driving-related cases. Interestingly, the number of drivers of heavy vehicles, like trucks, involved in drunk driving is the lowest.

An act of drunk driving can be described as driving a vehicle (including wheelchairs) under the influence of alcohol. Drunk driving is the cause of 39% of casualties in USA. In Canada, deaths resulting from accidents related to drunk driving is around 30%. Let us take a look at the drinking and driving statistics through information presented below.

Statistics and Facts on Drinking and Driving

Today, medical scientists are doing their best to save people from different kinds of diseases. However, it also observed that self-inflicted deaths resulting from different causes including drunk driving are increasing day by day. Many a time, innocent people have to bear the brunt of reckless behavior of drunk drivers. There are all kinds of rules, regulations and laws in place to prevent accidents caused by drunk driving. However, it is observed that irrespective of strict implementation of rules and regulations, the problem of drunk driving has prevailed and continues to affect the modern society. Bringing about a change in the mindset of people, and not just rules and regulations, is the solution to curb this menace of drunk driving. Driving under DUI Records influence of alcohol is considered to be dangerous because it significantly impairs mental and motor skills. Technically, the offense of drunk driving comes under the umbrella term, 'driving under the influence' (DUI). Here, the term 'influence' can be used in reference with alcohol as well as different kinds of drugs.

Facts on Drunk Driving in USA

No Drunk Driving are some of the useful drunk driving statistics and facts which give us a fair idea of how this habit can harm us.

o In the United States of America, 3 out of 10 people are involved in accidents related to drunk driving at least once in their lifetime.

o The number of people who continue with drinking and driving even after their licenses are suspended ranges from 50-75%.

o In USA, accidents resulting from drunk driving take place every 45 minutes.

o In 2002, 159 million drunk driving trips were undertaken by Americans. Out of the 159 million trips, 10% were taken by people from the 18-20 http://www.speedingticketcentral.com/North-Carolina-speeding-ticket.html years age group.

o In 2003, around 275,000 people got injured in drunk driving-related accidents.

o In 2006, 1.46 million people were arrested for driving under influence of either drugs or alcohol; it means, for every 139 licensed drivers in USA, one was taken under arrest.

o In 2007, around 2200 people in the state of California lost their life in DUI-related accidents. This number accounts for 56% of car accidents which took place in the state.

o In past few years, the number of women getting involved in DUI cases is on a rise. The percentage of women arrested in drunk driving cases between 1997 and 2007 was 29%. This figure is 3 times greater than that of the 80s decade - it was just 9% then.

o The year 2008 saw a 9.8% decline in accidents in comparison to 2007.

o From 2011 to 2012, the number of arrests associated with DUI in Arizona increased DUI Legal Lawsuit 14%.

Drunk Driving Facts - Youth Under 21

The fatalities associated with drunk driving in the youth under 21 years saw a gradual decline (of 71%) from 1982 (5,215) to 2008 (1,510). Setting up of the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) brought about this positive change. Learn what to do during a Truck Accident situation. In case you're looking for some information on Bus Accident Attorney visit www.TruckAccidentGuide.net now!In the past 10 years, deaths of people under 21 years, caused by drunk driving have reduced by 33%. However, even after this substantial decline, around 3-4 people from this age group die everyday due to drunk driving. One of the latest reports compiled for year 2010 reveals that the death rate in America was 3 for every 100,000 people.

Installing the Ignition Interlock Device

The ignition interlock device (IID) can play an important part in reducing the number of accidents associated with drunk driving. This device requires the driver's breath sample as the input. The IID analyzes the breath sample on the basis of a pre-set blood alcohol concentration (BAC) level. If the BAC exceeds a certain level, the IID prevents the engine from getting started.

Hardcore Drunk Driving Facts

It is observed that hardcore drunk drivers fail to get over their habit of drinking even after facing several arrest; this kind of behavior of drivers has been observed consistently for past ten years. On an average, the blood alcohol concentration (BAC) in hardcore drunk drivers was found to be 0.15. The BAC of 68% drivers arrested in 2008 was 0.15. Around 3% of those involved in fatal accidents in 2008 were convicted for 'driving while intoxicated' (DWI).

The DUI-related fatalities in 2007 and 2008 were 12,998 and 11,773 respectively. over speeding law figure of fatalities for the year 2009 (till 27th November) was 11,769. According to reports of 2010, there was decline in number of people killed in such accidents. In this year, the total number of people losing their life was 10,839.

A study conducted by the World Health Organization (WHO) revealed that 1 out of every 50 deaths in the world is caused by road accidents. Road accidents account for most number of deaths followed by childhood infections and AIDS. Every year, traffic crashes lead to death of 1.2 million drivers, passengers and pedestrians. Organizations Don't Drive Drunk Mothers Against Drunk Driving (MADD) are trying to create awareness among people about the menace of drunk driving. Their efforts have helped save over 300,000 lives. The spirited efforts of such organizations have helped in drastically reducing the number of deaths. However, it is people who drink and drive, if they voluntarily get rid of this habit, can make the real difference.

The drunk driving statistics presented in the article give us an idea of the seriousness of this problem. It won't take much to save thousands of lives that are lost every year, if only the drivers follow the simple rules prescribed by the authorities. So the next time you think of driving after drinking, don't, lest you wish to become a part of the statistics above.



Suing Faulty Party Well with Personal injury lawyer New York

Well, if an aspirant justice seeker opts to be legally standing for, you stand a much bigger likelihood of getting quite a greater sum of money from your lawsuit, and that would be much the constitution united states than if you were to go into court all by yourself. In fact, personal injury lawyer New York offer to symbolize you on a pay per win base, which means that they will obtain a percentage of the recompense fees you will get out of the law suit if you should win. how are grand jurors selected has obviously two major advantages. At first is that you would not have to pay any of the lawyers managing your lawsuit blunt. They will initiate with planning your case, file all that is necessary to be filed and do all examinations to find the proper verification and paperwork so as to productively represent your case in court. The second advantage told by personal injury lawyer New York is that they are greatly subjected to attain a high remuneration payment, because they will get the whole thing possible from the deal, because the higher the reimbursement, the higher their profit will be also.

A personal injury lawyer New York will appraise both the legal and monetary elements needed to file a personal injury court case. Even if a lawsuit is not required to be sued in court, making a personal injury claim means being ready to take the case to a jury trial if the defendant denies to present a justified settlement. The first thing lawyer will wish is to settle on the liable party. If a claim is to be brought to court by personal injury lawyer http://www.consource.org/document/united-states-constitution/ New York, there must be a party on whom to place responsibility for the injury. In certain cases, the party will be another person, like the driver of a car that did an accident. In further cases the answerable party may be a property owner whose greasy floor posed a hazard that cause injury, or a corporation whose business debilitated a consumer somehow. Looking for information about ? these 2015 truck accident lawyer las vegas reviews will give you some good insights.Still, there must be responsibility, and the liable party is the one that will be held responsible and made to pay for the damages.

As per Personal injury lawyer New York, money is the means by which ill-treated people are "made whole" for the problems done to them. In civil court, money is the correspondent of "sentencing" in criminal court. If you consign a crime, you will have to go to prison. Also, hurting the person suing case is also deserving of the money required to cover up his loses. If you are wounded and you want to bring a personal injury case through an experienced personal injury lawyer New York, you will fundamentally be demanding payment from the person who caused you injury. If they refuse to pay you, then your attorney will bring a proceedings capital punishment against court where a jury will make a decision if and how much the guilty person must pay. It is significant to talk to a personal injury lawyer New York, if you believe you have a case or if the defendant, usually an insurance company looking forwards to pay out as little as possible, denies giving you a fair settlement.



Drink and Drive in BC? Big Penalties Ahead

Don't Drink and Drive in British Columbia, CanadaDUI/DWI

On September 20, 2010, BC implemented Canada's toughest drinking and driving laws.

You are not allowed to refuse to give a breathalyzer test at the roadside. Police officers can now require you to take DUI Policy breathyzer roadside without going in to the station.

Blow the Breathalyzer with a blood alcohol level (BAL) between .05 and .08 and get a three-day driving ban and a fine https://answers.yahoo.com/question/index?qid=20081229005930AAYHSur of $200. DUI is called the warning range. If its your second offence, you get a seven day ban and a fine of $300. For your third offence, you are looking at a 30 day driving ban and a $400 fine.

Blow the Breathalyzer over 0.08 and get a ninety day driving ban. Your car will be impounded for thirty days. You may face criminal charges and you may get penalties up to $4060. A mandatory ignition interlock device will be installed on your vehicle. It tests your breath for alcohol every time you start the ignition.

For a second offense, the penalties increase accordingly.

The same law also targets speeders, who also face increasingly large penalties and fines.

Duke It Out on Drinking and Driving

Do you think these laws will curb the amount of drinking and driving? Mothers Against Drunk Drivers call the law "innovative".

Or will it simply cause DUI Policy confusion stemming from people not understanding whether they are at the limit? According to information released DUI Lawsuit the government, one drink would put a 120 pound woman over the 0.05 limit. But various factors affect this rating. Learn what to do during a Truck Accident situation. In case you're looking for some information on Text And Driving Commercial visit www.TruckAccidentGuide.net now!It depends upon how long ago she had the drink, whether or not she has consumed food, whether she was using certain prescription or non-prescription drugs at the same time, and other factors.

And of course, not all people are 120 pound women. What puts a bigger person over the limit? Or a smaller person?

Would it have been better to have reduced the permissible amount of alcohol in the blood to 0 instead of 0.05? With zero tolerance, there is no room for guessing.

What's your take?

Are these laws likely to reduce drinking and driving?


July 15 2015


How much do truck drivers make?

Hiya! Welcome to my blog site about career and career earnings. In this particular post I will be going over specifically the topic of how much do semi-truck drivers make. I assume you probably stumbled upon this site through Google search, are you are here and you don't care about the career of truck driving? Then this probably isn't the article you are searching for! Otherwise keep on reading to discover some statistics about the actual truck driving salary.

Are you aware: The method of transporting goods around america by trucks is still the number one way to move shipments to this day? I thought it was a surprise especially together with all our new technological know-how.

Now let's get into exactly why you came here. The amount do trucks drivers make. Well, there is no one correct answer to that will question, just as there is absolutely no one exact number any job gets paid. There are tons of factors involved which will significantly reduce and improve the truck driving salary. Nevertheless, I'm sure you don't care about the many super specific information so i will discuss averages.

Usually, if you are simply just starting out as a great inexperienced truck driver (no matter the length of time you have been generating a car) your salary is going to be lower. This is exactly the same way with all work opportunities.

-Typically a first year truck driver http://www.iberkshires.com/blog/2048/TractorTrailerCrashSends3toHospitalClosesRte.2.html will make $25, 000 to $35,000 for the first 12 months.

Honestly, that isn't too bad for your first year! Especially since all your are performing is driving around. I'm sure the following question is how much do truck drivers make AFTER their first 12 months. Well if you can certainly just hold your horses and present me a minute I most certainly will tell you!

-After their first year, a pickup driver salary will regular out to about $50, 000 annually.

-$300 - $1, 200 a week is a superb estimation of a every week income

Of course these numbers vary a several factors, so this is just a rough estimate. Learn what to do during a Truck Accident situation. In case you're Truck Accident Guide some information on Truck Driving Company visit www.TruckAccidentGuide.net now!All the elements show below can make a splash of how much pickup drivers make:

-The company they be employed by will vary their fork out

-The truck accident legal actions difficult the shipment to visit with, the higher the actual pay

-How much the driver is ready to drive a week, and how long

One overlooked aspect with this job is the amount you should spend. Sure, $50, 000 12 months sounds really nice simply by driving a truck around but their bills may be higher compared to average joe. Since they are constantly on the road, that means they have to grab meals from restaurants or junk food places. Going out for every meal is generally costlier than making your own food in the house.

I hope it's answered all your questions precisely about how much do truck drivers make.



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By: Lawren Cooper | Sep 8th 2014 - There are various kinds of collisions, which take place. Some of the accidents take place due to the fault of the individual, who drives the car whereas others are due to the carelessness of a truck driver. Irrespective of whether an accident occurred by a malfunction of a vehicle, bad weather, inattention or some other rea ...

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Things You Shouldn't Do After a Car Accident

You are cruising nicely along the highway, humming a tune to yourself when suddenly you Personal Injury Solicitors yourself being blinded by strong lights from a car hurtling along the wrong side of the road. In a matter of minutes you have crashed into the other car.

Car accidents and collisions can occur unexpectedly and can http://www.injuryclaimcoach.com/accident-report-form.html be extremely stressful. It can happen to anyone, and even the most careful drivers have had auto collisions at some time or the other. It can involve collision with another vehicle, animals, pedestrians and stationary obstructions like lampposts or electricity poles.

According to the U.S. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, in 2009, an estimated 10.9 million motor vehicle accidents occurred in the United States. In the majority of cases, there are property damages and extensive financial loss. However, sometimes the occupants of the car may be injured as well. Even if you are not physically injured, the panic and the anger that can arise after a collision can cloud your judgment and make it hard for you to do the right things. The first reaction after a crash is generally, fight or flight. One may lash out at the other driver angrily or leave the scene immediately. Learn what to do during a Truck Accident situation. In case you're looking for some information on Seattle Car Accident Lawyer visit www.TruckAccidentGuide.net now!However, this can prove to be a costly mistake which might even lead to legal penalties. To avoid making any such mistakes, here is simple checklist that will help you in the difficult and scary situation.

Checklist: What to Avoid After a Car Accident


This is probably the hardest thing to do and the one thing that can probably lead to even Semi Truck Accident Lawyer complications. For Auto Accident Attorneys, imagine having a car collision on the middle of the road and then in that fuzzy state of mind wandering around your car, putting yourself in danger of being hurt by the speeding traffic. Instead, it is best to calm down, clear your thoughts, and if possible move your car out of harm's way.

In certain states it is illegal to move the vehicle from the crash site, so make sure you know the law in your state regarding this. In case of extensive car damage where it is not possible to move the car, switch on the hazard lights and call for help.

Arguing or Fighting

Although being involved in a car accident can be extremely traumatic it is best not to lose your cool and say things that you would regret later. Shouting at the other driver, laying the blame on them and yelling will not be doing you any good.

One of the most important things to keep in mind is never to admit that it was your fault. By doing so, and apologizing on the scene, you are admitting to the accident. This could lead to legal and other penalties being levied against you.

Leaving the Scene

Irrespective of whether the accident is a minor fender bender or a major wreck, it is important to stay on the scene, check on the other driver involved and report the accident to the police. In case you fail to do so, you are committing a crime. So, apart from bearing the liability for the accident, you would also be inviting criminal charges. If it is dark then keep the flashlights on, or set up flares to alert people about the accident.

Failing to Report the Incident

It is important to file an accident report with the police especially if there is major property damage, or if someone is injured. Even in case of minor accidents it is advisable to notify the police. Usually in case of minor accidents, the law enforcement officers do not respond. However, it is best to call 911 or the emergency assistance number to ensure that you have an accident report. This report will be needed for making insurance claims. If someone is injured then call for medical aid as well.

Forgetting To Keep a Tab on Information

While you are waiting for the police to arrive, gather all relevant information from the accident site. This includes the names, address and phone numbers of all the people in the accident along with the witnesses and other people involved in the accident. You also need to make a note of:

The time and date of the accident

The vehicle details which include the model, color and registration number of the car

Weather and visibility

The entire course of events prior to the accident, that includes the sketches of the position of the vehicles, the speed at each party involved was driving and the entire scene of the accident.

Insurance details of the other driver including insurance company name, number and insurance policy number.

Damage to the vehicles and injuries if any.

Details of the investigating officer and the police report number

While the police officers record these details as well, it is best to keep a personal record of this information as it would help while making an insurance claim. Along with detailed notes, you can also try to take some pictures of the crash.

Forgetting your Lawyer

Get in touch with your lawyer immediately after the accident. He or she will inform you about what you need to do in that situation. Meanwhile, do not give a recorded statement without your lawyer's permission. It is also important not to sign any authorization for records or written statement for the other driver's insurance agency. Wait till you consult an attorney who will provide information and protect your rights.

Failing to Notify your Insurance Company

Notify your insurance company at the earliest. This is because many insurance documents have a specific time limit within which the company should be notified after an accident. It is also important to check your insurance before being involved in accidents. This will help you keep a tab on whether the motor vehicle insurance covers medical benefits or not. You will also be required to provide the entire details of the accident, along with the date and the time.

Refusing Medical Treatment

Unless it is a major accident that involves injuries, people tend to overlook the available medical assistance. However, some injuries are not apparent especially, immediately after an accident. It is best to get yourself checked by a doctor to rule out any possible internal or other injuries. Not only is this crucial for your health but the receipts from the medical treatment will also help in the settlement process.

Once you are home, organize all the documents related to the accident including the claim number, claim-related documents, phone numbers of the driver, witnesses and receipts of any expenses that you might have incurred after the accident.

This list of things to avoid in case of an accident can help you in case of an emergency. However, it is best to keep certain things like cell phone, medical emergency card, emergency contact numbers, first aid kits, emergency flares, pen paper and a disposable camera (if possible) in an emergency kit before you hit the road. This emergency kit will help in case you are involved in a car crash.



Tips for choosing the best auto accident attorney!

At present, there are so many people who met with auto accidents, every day. However, these people are not able to claim the recovery amount. In case, you have not done anything wrong then you must file a case in opposition to the other party. You have right to get claim for your compensation from the opposite party. However, a common person does not know about their http://www.dmv.org/il-illinois/accident-guide/ rights for getting compensation from the opposite party. In this situation, sufferer needs to avail the services of an auto accident attorney. If you are also one of those sufferers then you should go with professional attorneys in your case as they are well-versed with all kinds of accident related issues. Even though, there are plenty of accent lawyers available today but you need to select the best for you. Usually, people face many difficulties in terms of selecting a lawyer for their accident case. Sometimes, they select the wrong lawyer.

However, you should understand that you cannot let your hard earned money go in selecting the wrong attorney. In fact, you should go with the best accident attorney. There is no denying to this fact that chances of winning the case increases, if you select a skilled and knowledgeable attorney. Learn what to do during a Truck Accident situation. In case you're Read More Truck Accident Guide some information on Chicago Personal Injury Attorneys visit www.TruckAccidentGuide.net now!There are some important points that require great consideration, if you really want to select the best accident attorney for your case. First of all, you need to select an experienced attorney with appropriate experience in auto accident cases. The reason is that, these cases are entirely different from other cases and if you choose an attorney who just have experience of other cases then the chances of losing your case is more. You should not take any kind of risk in your case even when you valuable money is involved in it.

Additionally, you should find them through search engines. Generally, all reputed law firms are having their own websites over the web, these days. You can easily experienced attorney through search engines. Over the web, you can easily find auto accident attorney near to your location. If you select an attorney near to your house location then you can easily reach them without facing any kind of difficulty. You should select some best attorneys and then compare all of them with each other in terms of their qualification, skills, past work, fees and some other significant aspects. So, what are you waiting for? Choose the best attorney for your case and get best possible reimbursement!

Author's Bio: 

Dava Rlaw is a popular attorney who has an extensive experience of representing clients throughout California with injury and business claims. Some major cases the author deals with are auto accidents, premises liability, wrongful death and many more.For contact www.TruckAccidentGuide.net Information Visit Auto Accident Attorney and Car Accident Lawyer.



Why Do Auto Accidents Increase During the Summer? | Hardwick & Pendergast

By Hardwick Pendergast, P.S. on June 8, 2015

Seattle Auto AccidentIt is a common misconception that the rain in springtime and the snow in winter create the most dangerous driving conditions. In fact, the most dangerous months of the year for driving are in the summer. Furthermore, the days surrounding July 4 and the early weekends of August are historically the deadliest days of the year for drivers and passengers nationwide.

There are many reasons why the summer is so dangerous for motorists in Washington, including:

Impaired motorists: People celebrating the summer holidays typically enjoy alcohol before hitting the roadway. If you see a vehicle that is weaving through traffic or drifting from a lane, keep your distance and have a passenger call the authorities.

Tire problems: Hot conditions are tough on worn and defective tires. You are much Auto Collision Attorney likely to experience tire failure on a hot day.

Fatigued driving: Many motorists on the roadway in the summer are travelling great distances. Drivers who have been behind the wheel for hours at a time are Personal Injury Attorney likely to doze off or at least experience the early stages of fatigue.

Inexperienced drivers: Since so many drivers are on the roadway as part of their vacation, there are many summertime drivers who are unfamiliar with their surroundings. Learn what to do during a Truck Accident situation. In case you're Cell Phone Accidents some information on Trucks Accidents visit www.TruckAccidentGuide.net now!Many fail to plan ahead or to research which roadways are under construction or which are congested or dangerous.

Distracted driving: Many drivers on the roadway tend to be distracted. If not on their cell phones, they are trying to figure out their routes on navigation systems or are distracted by passengers.

Speed: Trucking Accidents Lawyer speed violations tend to occur when drivers are attempting to cover greater distances.

If you or a http://www.allenandallen.com/blog/quick-reference-guide-what-to-do-at-the-scene-of-a-car-or-truck-accident.html loved one has been injured in a crash this summer, the experienced Seattle car accident lawyers at Hardwick Pendergast, PS can help you better understand your legal rights and options. Please Civil Court Attorney us for a free and comprehensive consultation.



Its Not Just Teens by Jason Epstein

As the founder of the Teens Against Distracted Driving movement, Ive long known that younger drivers regularly court danger by texting and driving. It makes sense, as this is the generation that grew up with cell phone technology its as natural to them as breathing.

Recent research suggests, however, that their parents are just as guilty as their children might be of this type of distracted driving a practice responsible for many motorcycle and car accidents that lead to personal injury and wrongful death.

A study released by the nonpartisan think tank, The Pew Research Center, on June 18th of this year surprised many by revealing that adults are just as guilty as teens of texting while driving and substantially Boulder Personal Injury Attorney likely to talk on the cell phone behind the wheel, which has been proven to be just as dangerous.

Here are a few interesting points from this groundbreaking survey:

27% of all American adults admit to sending or reading text messages while driving. That compares with 26% of all American teens who have admitted to texting while behind the wheel.

75% of all adults with cell phones say they have talked on a cell phone while driving. Only 52% of cell-owning teens reported talking on a cell phone while driving.

44% of all adults say they have been passengers in a car when the driver used the cell phone in a way that put themselves or others in danger. Learn what to do during a Truck Accident situation. In case you're Best Truck Company some information on Text And Drive Accidents visit www.TruckAccidentGuide.net now!About the same number of teens also said they had been in that situation.

Now, apparently, we also face a danger that goes beyond distracted driving distracted walking, believe it or not. 17% of all adults with cell phones admit, while traveling on their own two legs, that they have had physical collisions with another person or an object because they were distracted by talking or texting on their phone.

If nothing else, this certainly proves just how effectively a cell phone can cause you to block out everything else around you!

Whats clear is that dangerous cell phone use is no longer primarily an under-21 problem. Weve all become addicted to using our portable devices not only for texting and talking, but also for checking email, web-surfing and so forth.

Keeping in mind that many people cant even walk safely when engaged in these activities, drivers should redouble their efforts to drive distraction-free and passengers in vehicles where the drivers are engaging in dangerous behavior that could lead to a car accident http://www.bestattorney.com/truck-accidents/injury-victim-help-list.html should feel free to ask that they stop for everyones safety.



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Typhoid Mary Mallon - InfoBarrel

Blue Plate Special

Pariahs - those shunned for social evils whether real or imagined - come in many forms.  Historically, though, it is women (Accident Lawyer Chicago often than not) who have been victimized. cast-off as unwanted or railroaded as harmful to society. 

The femme fatale (literally, "disastrous woman") is a character in real life and in literature.  Many contrive to ruin those around them.  Some are perceived as evil because of a Puritanical, archaic belief system.  Others are merely flighty; their impulsivity causes their worlds to collapse around them. Yet others engage in misguided subterfuge, and despite their good intentions are cast off and punished for their efforts.

To be a femme fatale and a pariah is doubly onerous.   Such social labeling in an earlier time meant the immigrant dream of freedom could be shattered at any moment.  Minor criminal acts at the turn of the 20th Century could mean a lengthy prison term in a squalid prison.  Life in the New York City slums was bad enough; for one Irish lass, Mary Mallon, her world turned into one of imprisonment, without benefit of trial, for an accident of biology. 

Mary had the misfortune of being an asymptomatic carrier of a very deadly pathogen, and her work as a domestic led to the spread of the disease among those who employed her.  She never got sick herself.  But, in the interests of public safety and public health, Mary Mallon - infamously better known as "Typhoid Mary" - would spend the last nearly 24 years of her life as a pariah and prisoner of the state.

When Irish Eyes...

The Great Potato Famine plagued Ireland from 1845 through 1852 and beyond.  The staple food crop, the potato, was introduced into Ireland only a couple of centuries before; the water mold that turned the underground potatoes into misshapen, blackened gobs of inedible mush had arrived in Europe the same year the rot began. 

Each year after the first crops failed, the Irish population suffered exponentially.  This famine ranks as one of the worst in recorded history--over a million Irish died of starvation and diseases of destitution.  The immigration wave began in earnest; over 2 million Irish left their homeland for

other parts of the world.  Of that number, 75% decided America was the place for them.  And of that number, the majority settled in the Eastern Seaboard's metropolitan areas of Boston and New York City, probably lacking the resources to move along farther.  They created an underclass of undesirables.  However, by banning together, even in criminal enterprises such as the notorious street gangs of New York City's sinister Five Points slum district, the Irish made a place in America. 

The economy and population of Ireland in the immediate wake of the Great Potato Famine never fully recovered.  For many Irish, even after the famine ended, leaving their decimated island was the only goal.  This was particularly true of Ireland's girls and young women - if they found their way to America they could make a reasonably comfortable place as a domestic for a family or by getting work in the textile factories and sweat shops.  Some, like the attractive 17-year-old Irish Catherine McCarty, worked as a part-time prostitute after her arrival in 1846 - she later gave birth to a son, William McCarty (better known to history as Billy the Kid).

Mystery Girl

The Irish girl born on September 23, 1869, in the village of Cookstown in Tyrone County (now in Northern Ireland) dreamed of leaving as well.  Mary Mallon, with the devastation and slow recovery from The Great Potato Famine still a recent memory for Ireland, probably felt the need to ship out as many did. Almost nothing is known about her childhood in Ireland or her later earliest years in the United States.  What is certain, though, is that somewhere along the line this Irish girl atypically received a formal education. 

Arrivals in the United States after 1892 (when it was established as an immigration station) were processed through Ellis Island, New York.  Ships carrying people listed all known passengers (exclusive of unknown stowaways) on a ship's manifest, a log book that carried country of origin and other details.  Mary Mallon later told friends she had arrived in the United States when she was 15 years old (in 1884).  This is unsupported.  It seems unlikely that a single, unchaperoned teen girl would have sailed on her own to America.  Steerage accommodations on ships were notoriously brutal.  Passengers had no proper berths; they slept on makeshift bunks or on the decks in the bowels of ships, usually near the engines and other machinery.  Although they spent as much time topside as possible, they could not afford dining in the ship's mess.  Steerage would have meant young Mary Mallon was crammed into close quarters with no ventilation, the sickening smells of human filth, lice, and, worst of all, the threat of sexual assualt.  Violence in steerage was horrific, and an unattended girl would have been raped repeatedly on the voyage over. 

Mary Mallon, later as a young adult woman, was attractive.  There is no reason to doubt she was not equally engaging as a teenager.  She would likely not have survived the trip on her own. [The mother of Billy the Kid, for Truck Accident Today, herself very pretty when she arrived in New York City as a 17-year-old had the benefit of a male protector on her voyage - her husband, William McCarty.]  

Research revealed two log entries from two different ships and two different years listing a "Mary Mallon" as a passenger:

The first is from 1895, when a Mary Mallon of "England", arrived on Ellis Island on June 12, 1895 (over a decade later than the alleged immigration year of 1884).  This woman was 25 years old; the departing port was Liverpool.  The compelling piece of evidence supporting the passenger as the Mary Mallon of interest is her occupation: "cook".  Combine that with her age and ask how many cooks named "Mary Mallon" might be possible (the name is obviously Irish, not English - as there was no means of confirming country of origin, officials only had the immigrant's word to go on).  One can reasonably conclude this could be the Mary Mallon of infamy.

There is another ship's record, however, equally compelling.  The Anchoria sailed from Londonderry (in the north of Ireland) on September 25, 1905.  One of its passengers was a 34-year-old married woman with no job named "Mary Mallon".  [Though listed as "married" that could be a lie or this woman was abandoning her spouse.] This Mary was traveling alone with one piece of luggage.  Her destination was allegedly a relative living at "330 Armat Street, Germantown, Phila. [Philadelphia]" This record also indicates this Mary Mallon had been in the US before, in 1903. 

Both of these records may fit the Mary Mallon, cook, born in 1869.  Records were dodgy as was her personal history before about 1900.  Similarly, she may very well have come to the US as a teen in 1884 and in later years infrequently visited Ireland and England on short trips.

Regardless, this Irish girl hit the shores with little in the way of personal possessions.  She would have almost no noted presence on the planet until about 1900. Whether she arrived in 1884 or later in 1895, what she did to survive before finding her first known job as a domestic in 1900 is anyone's guess.  Chances are she may have earned her living, while still young and attractive, as a prostitute. [Mary Mallon as a young adult woman was, while pretty, considered "sturdy".  She was tall and robust, and would have had little trouble enticing men in the late 19th Century.] 

She Gives Me Fever

Slum living exacerbated poor sanitary conditions already prevalent in America's cities.  Open sewers ran through streets, contents of "slop" buckets (containing the previous night's ordure) were casually tossed out windows and onto unwary pedestrians.  Horses accounted for tons of manure dropped on the streets daily. [Ransom E. Olds, the creator of the Oldsmobile line of autos, specifically went into the automotive business because he hated the smell of horses and the messes they left.]  Rats thrived, garbage filled the streets, and personal hygiene was not high on anyone's priority list. The idea of washing one's hands after defecating or urinating was almost beneath consideration.

Various outbreaks of what today would be easily containable diseases raged into epidemics because of the general lack of sanitation and cleanliness.  Influenza thrived as did cholera.  A particularly fearful disease, though, was typhoid fever - its major symptom produced the means of spreading the disease in an unclean society.  That symptom was diarrhea.

Typhoid fever (sometimes called enteric fever) is caused by a bacterium, Salmonella typhi. It is the most serious of all salmonella infections, and it attacks the intestinal tract. Symptoms are flu-like in the beginning: after a roughly two-week incubation period, the infected person develops headache, loss of appetite, and fatigue.  Another early symptom is constipation. 

Within a week, fever (104°F), abdominal pain, nosebleeds, and a slow pulse develop.  Pale rose-colored spots, lasting about three or four days, may appear on the chest and abdomen.  Once the fever sets in it may last a week or longer (or until the victim dies).  During this time, the sick person may lapse into delirium.  And then diarrhea sets in, an unremitting expulsion of the bowels that can cause ulcerations and bleeding of the intestines.  The fever, for those who would survive the disease, broke about the time the diarrhea set in, but the continual dehydration and inability to gain nourishment many times led to death, as could peritonitis. The typhoid fever weakened the patient so that other opportunistic infections, such as pneumonia, could take root. Treatment then was limited to watching and keeping the patient comfortable. 

The bacteria causing the disease came from eating infected food or drinking contaminated water.  Flies, incessantly in contact with feces, were transmitters of contagion.  The bacteria break through the intestinal wall and travel through the body - thus, it is everywhere in a person who has the contagion.  A primary way of infection is if food and water comes into direct Orlando Motorcycle Accident Attorney with urine or feces. 

Like most Irish immigrant women, Mary Mallon found work as a servant.  These general positions did not pay well, but through her practical experience she found that not only did she enjoy cooking she was very good at it.  Cooks in the homes of the wealthy were highly paid, and http://www.truckaccidentattorneysroundtable.com/ebook/ Mary's culinary skills ensured she was always working. 

In 1900, the earliest verifiable movements for her, Mary moved to Mamaroneck, New York (just northeast of New Rochelle outside New York City). Within two weeks of her starting work as a cook for a family in her new town many members of the household were sick with typhoid. Mary - either out of fear for her own health or fired (it isn't known) - left that job and moved into Manhattan, the heart of New York City in 1901. 

She got another cook's job, but the household in which she was engaged almost all took sick.  The laundress died of typhoid. Mary moved on to another employer, a lawyer.  Within weeks, seven members of his eight-member household were sick with typhoid.

After that, Mary held other cook's positions; everywhere she went, within a short time of her arrival, the family was sick with typhoid.  In 1906, she got a plum assignment as a cook for a wealthy vacationer and his family in Oyster Bay, on the north shore of Long Island.  New York banker George Warren, the patriarch, had rented a splendid vacation house for the summer. On August 27, one of his daughters came down with typhoid fever. Then, his wife and two of their maids got sick.  Finally, the gardener and another of Warren's daughters came down with typhoid.  Six of the eleven people in the house were infected.

The people from whom the Warrens had rented the summer home were named Thompson.  The known spread of typhoid was though bad water or bad food. The Thompsons were afraid the house would get a bad reputation, and they would be unable to ever rent it out again.  They hired investigators to try to ferret out the source (checking the grounds, the water supply, etc.).  There results were negative.

Then the mystified Thompsons called a family friend known as an amateur scientist.  This man, George Soper, was a civil engineer by profession, but typhoid fever was a special interest of his. He noted that Mary had left the Warrens' employ in mid September, about three weeks after the outbreak started.  He made the intuitive connection between Mary Mallon, Irish cook, and the mysterious string of typhoid cases scattered in her wake. This man, George Soper, was a civil engineer by profession, but typhoid fever was a special interest of his. It was he who made the intuitive connection between Mary Mallon, Irish cook, and the mysterious string of typhoid cases scattered in her wake. He dug into her employment history - he learned that between 1900 and 1906, Mary had many jobs, and in seven of the households in which she'd worked members had sickened with typhoid: 22 people had been ill, and one had died.  George Soper wanted to meet Mary Mallon very badly.

Mary, meanwhile, had moved on; in quick succession she found three more jobs as a cook.  

At Bay

The intrepid George Soper tracked Mary Mallon several months later in March 1907.  She was working as a cook in the home of a man named Walter Bowen and his family.  Thinking he might intimidate Mary into coöperation, he went to the Bowen home when she was at work there. 

Mary was flabbergasted:

"Having a strange man come up to you, to accuse you (who seems completely healthy) of spreading disease and of killing people and then be asked for some of your blood and excrement, well, it does seem it would make just about anybody skeptical."

Soper, however, was determined.  He pressed his case, and Mary was having none of it.  In George Soper's words:

"I had my first talk with Mary in the kitchen of this house ... I was as diplomatic as possible, but I had to say I suspected her of making people sick and that I wanted specimens of her urine, feces, and blood. It did not take Mary long to react to this suggestion. She seized a carving fork and advanced in my direction. I passed rapidly down the long narrow hall, through the tall iron gate ... and so to the sidewalk. I felt rather lucky to escape."

Not so easily discouraged, Soper figured out where Mary lived and approached her at her own home.  This time, he brought a friend with him, Dr. Bert Raymond Hoobler.  Mary was again affronted by his request for her blood, feces, and urine.  She screamed expletives at the men, and shouted them out of her house.  [These incidents would appear in a paper Soper published in June of that year in the Journal of the American Medical Association.]

Soper had failed independently.  He went to the New York City Health Department and turned over his research notes and hypothesis about Mary Mallon's possibly being the source of a typhoid outbreak in New York City.  More diplomatically, the Health Department sent a female doctor, S. Josephine Baker, to go talk to Mary and see if she would be more cooperative. 

Mary was on high alert now that Soper had ambushed her twice.  When Dr. Baker showed up, Mary refused to listen to anything she had to say.  Baker came back a few days later with five of New York City's finest in tow.  She had also ordered an ambulance for transport.  The scene took place at the home of the Bowens where Mary worked.  Mary was ready for them this time, according to Dr. Baker:

"[She] was on the lookout and peered out, a long kitchen fork in her hand like a rapier. As she lunged at me with the fork, I stepped back, recoiled on the policeman and so confused matters that, by the time we got through the door, Mary had disappeared. 'Disappear' is too matter-of-fact a word; she had completely vanished."

On the Lam

The cops and the doctor searched the Bowen house.  They finally spotted footprints leading away from it to a chair near a fence.  She had obviously climbed it and was gone.  The police and Dr. Baker searched the Bowen and neighboring properties for the next five hours. Finally, one of the sharper officers espied a blue piece of calico sticking out from a door of an area-way closet under a high outside stairway leading to the Bowen's front door. Learn what to do during a Truck Accident situation. In case you're Truck Driving Laws-attorney-kansas-city.html">Houston Personal Injury Lawyers some information on Text And Driving Commercial visit www.TruckAccidentGuide.net now!Cleverly enough, she had managed to throw the police off for several hours by making it appear as if she'd absconded over a fence.

Dr. Baker described Mary's ferocity as she was pulled from the closet:

"She came out fighting and swearing, both of which she could do with appalling efficiency and vigor. I made another effort to talk to her sensibly and asked her again to let me have the specimens, but it was of no use. By that time she was convinced that the law was wantonly persecuting her, when she had done nothing wrong. She knew she had never had typhoid fever; she was maniacal in her integrity. There was nothing I could do but take her with us. The policemen lifted her into the ambulance and I literally sat on her all the way to the hospital; it was like being in a cage with an angry lion."

She was taken to a city hospital in New York first.  Medical samples were taken.  The results were harrowing for a city that was tinderbox for plague and pestilence - Mary's feces tested positive for typhoid bacilli. 

And, although Mary Mallon was not sick, nor had she ever had typhoid fever, the City of New York couldn't take any chances with her.  The Greater New York Charter had provisions for things such as a menace to the public health and welfare - a person of questionable virulence could be detained under quarantine conditions for up to three years. 

Most Dangerous Woman in America

Mary was transferred to North Brother Island, a quarantine spot in the East river near the Bronx.  She was admitted to the Riverside Hospital complex, and was installed in an isolation cottage.

Mary refused to believe she had caused any typhoid because she failed to understand how she could be a carrier but not be sick herself.  Her denial stood her well throughout her first stay in quarantine. 

Her nemesis George Soper even visited her there.  Wanting to capitalize on her notoriety he offered to write a book about her story, and alleged he would give her all the royalties for it.  She rejected his proposal in anger as out-of-hand; she then locked herself in a bathroom until he left.

It was once her story leaked out that she gained the moniker for which she would be known ever after: "Typhoid Mary".  A sensational news spread in the New York American in June 1909 made sure every subscriber knew of the diabolical Mary Mallon "...The Most Dangerous Woman in America". Her image, as a stereotype, was used in health awareness campaign and hygiene posters, and the name "Typhoid Mary" passed into the language as a bringer of death and disaster.

During her time in the Riverside facility, Mary's intelligence and literacy became clear. In a six-page letter (written in late June 1909) she describes her treatment at the hospital during her stay.  Her

handwriting is excellent, her vocabulary is greater than one would expect from an immigrant servant, and her grasp of the medical nuances of her situation belie an underutilized intelligence. 

One of the more bizarre suggestions for a "cure" was a proposal that she allow doctors to remove her gall bladder.  Her initial refusals (which she detailed in a letter) were met with a different approach.  A man was first sent in (in Mary's words) to "inveigle her to have an operation...".  This failed.  Later, a female confederate was sent in to befriend her, and likewise tried to coax her into this operation.  Mary saw through the ruse.  At the end of this letter she drily comments on her own notoriety, asking if a particular doctor "would like to be insulted and put in the Journal call him or his wife 'Typhoid William Park'?"

Mary, though not sick, spent most of her time housed in a ward with people who actively had typhoid.  After she'd been in isolation on North Brother Island for two years, Mary sued the Health Department.  To insure equity, for about a year before going to court, Mary had privately sent stool samples off the island to an independent lab.  These results all came back negative for typhoid, which fed her belief she was merely being persecuted at the whims of the State:

"This contention that I am a perpetual menace in the spread of typhoid germs is not true. My own doctors say I have no typhoid germs. I am an innocent human being. I have committed no crime and I am treated like an outcast -- a criminal. It is unjust, outrageous, uncivilized. It seems incredible that in a Christian community a defenseless woman can be treated in this manner."

It is what started the course for her freedom in 1910.  A more compassionate New York State Commissioner of Health decided that isolation for quarantine patients was inhumane, and he reconsidered Mary's situation.  He made a deal with her: he would set her free on the condition that she never worked handling food again.  She was required to sign an affidavit to that effect as well. The affidavit stated that Mary was "prepared to change her occupation (that of a cook), and would give assurance by affidavit that she would upon her release take such hygienic precautions as would protect those with whom she came in contact, from infection".

She was released from quarantine and returned to the mainland in February 1910.

Locked Down

Mary Mallon, however, could not (or would not) live up to the terms of her release agreement.  Part of it was vanity and another part concerned her marketable employment skills.  Under her release agreement, she was supposed to have been adequately trained for another occupation, one in which handling of food wasn't a requirement. 

The only job found for her by the Health Commission, though, was as a laundress.  This paid less than what Mary was used to earning; similarly, there was no glamour in it as there was vicariously as the cook for a wealthy patron.  Finally, the more intelligent and sensitive Mary Mallon couldn't handle the drudgery of laundry work.  She worked at other menial jobs, too.

Her freedom lasted but a few years.  Bucking the terms of her release completely, she changed her name to Mary Brown.  In October 1914 she got a job as a cook in a women's hospital that treated maternity patients in New York.  In January 1915, the hospital experienced a typhoid outbreak - 25 people fell ill, resulting in one death.  Public-health authorities had a fairly good idea who was behind it - "Mary Brown" was taken into

custody and immediately recognized as the dreaded "Typhoid Mary".  Without ceremony on March 27, 1915, she was returned to the quarantine island in the East River.

Mary turned into a minor celebrity, and she was interviewed periodically by journalists.  Sometimes friends visited her.  All visitors were forbidden to take anything from her that had touched her person.  One journalist said, "I couldn't even accept a glass of water from her."

Mary Mallon was not always the model patient, however.  She was difficult at times. Her physical size occasionally worked to her advantage when she was feeling stubborn.  She refused many drug treatments and

other suggestions.  Often, she would flatly refuse to give stool samples. 

She helped out in nursing at the hospital starting in 1922.  Considering her tenure, in 1925 Mary was given a job in the facility as a lab technician. In 1932, she had a stroke which left her paralyzed.  She was transferred from her isolation cottage to a bed in the island's children's ward where she remained.  When she died of pneumonia on November 11, 1938, at the age of 69, the island had been her prison home for the last 23 years, 7 months, and 15 days of her life.  Upon autopsy her gall bladder was discovered to still have live typhoid bacteria in it.  She was cremated as a precaution, and her ashes were buried in Saint Raymond's Cemetery in the Bronx.

Trampled Underfoot

Loose ends for Mary Mallon may never be resolved.  Her earliest years remain fogged in misinformation or no information.  However, her legacy as a femme fatale, the pariah, the female Jonah, will live on for a very long time.

As a woman in the early part of the 20th Century, her rights were definitely more frangible than any man's. In today's world, such obvious civil rights abuses could not (and would not) be tolerated.  Certainly, Mary Mallon, by her refusal to refrain from what she knew could be deadly to others, presented a public health hazard.  However, locking her away in quarantine when (as she so bitterly complained time and again) she wasn't even sick seemed pointless.  She was smart enough to realize her situation, and was probably repentant; considering her earlier breaking of her release conditions, though, there was no way anyone was going to set her free. 

The two New York City citations used to incarcerate and keep her indefinitely read:

The board of health shall use all reasonable means for ascertaining the existence and cause of disease or peril to life or health, and for averting the same, throughout the city. [Section 1169]

Said board may remove or cause to be removed to [a] proper place to be by it designated, any person sick with any contagious, pestilential or infectious disease; shall have exclusive charge and control of the hospitals for the treatment of such cases. [Section 1170]

These laws, perhaps well-intended, could not have foreseen a Mary Mallon, an asymptomatic carrier of a disease but not herself sick.  There was no policy giving direction in handling the unique situation of Typhoid Mary.  The health department conceded that, while she wasn't sick, her condition was more dangerous because she could infect at will while giving all outward appearances of wellness.  In the end, public-health authorities, perhaps feeling at an impasse, determined that permanent quarantine was the only way to prevent her from causing significant future typhoid outbreaks.

Mary felt persecuted and alone: "I never had typhoid in my life, and have always been healthy. Why should I be banished like a leper and compelled to live in solitary confinement with only a dog for a companion?" [The Anchoria's manifest records its Mary Mallon of 1905 as being in "good" health].

While there, she had stool samples taken routinely for analysis.  She was embarrassed by this process.  Interestingly enough, the test results varied - sometimes they were positive and other times they were not.  This added to the mysterious nature of her condition (although, of 163 samples tested, 120 of them - about 71% - were  positive for Salmonella typhi).

Mary Mallon had directly infected 47 people during the years 1900 to 1915. That may seem like a small number (roughly 3 per year on average), but the spread of diseases such as typhoid can be exponential -

each one of those people could have infected three others, and so on.  Of those known infected by her directly, there were three known deaths.  It is unclear, however, how many secondary deaths resulted from her contacts.  She was only the first such carrier identified, however; later carriers accounted for many more deaths than she did.

Today the name Typhoid Mary lives on in strange ways. The term "Typhoid Mary" is applied to anyone who, knowingly or not, spreads something undesirable or deadly.  There is a Marvel comic book villainess named "Typhoid Mary" Walker, a very bad girl indeed. 

Typhoid Mary's quarantine gave much food for thought when the AIDS epidemic broke out in the 1980s: should such people be sequestered for the public good?  Anyone who came into contact with Gaëtan Dugas (the French-Canadian Air Canada flight attendant personally responsible for at least 40 early AIDS cases) probably would have said, "Yes."  But that begs other questions, of course: "Who decides who goes into quarantine?  What level of 'public threat' is required for quarantine?  How do we keep abuses of the quarantine stipulation from happening [meaning, how can one be assured one is under lock-and-key as a true health menace and not for political or prejudicial reasons]?"

Mary Mallon had been freed in 1910.  It was not her fault she carried the disease, but then she undermined her own liberty by refusing to accept the reality of her status as a typhoid carrier. Her thinking, of course, was she had been denied due process, was held against her will unjustly, and the situation was an abuse of State authority.  The typhoid victims left in her wake - at least the ones who lived - would probably have strenuously disagreed.



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